Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracer by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
    3D Animation with POV-Ray
        Some Basics and Examples on 3D Animation.
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  3D Animation Tutorial
> Index of Content
  0. Basic Knowledge
     1. Basic Example
     2. From Images to Video
     3. Basic Terms
     4. Animation Commands  
  I. Cyclic Animations
     1. Rotating Objects
     1.2. Planets in Orbit
     1.3. Clock Animation
     2. Rotating Camera
     2.1. Straight Moving Camera
     3. Western Wheel
     3.1. Rolling Wheels
     4. Gears
     4.1. Roller Chain
     4.2. Bike Chain
     5. Swinging Pendulum
     5.1. Newton's Cradle
     5.2: Rock the Rocker
     6. Spiral Pendulum
     7. Coupling Rods
     7.1. Connecting Rods
     8. Psychedelic + Op-Art
     9. Conters + Countdowns
    10. Folding of a Cube
  II. Non-linear Movements
     1.0 Speed Up/Slow Down 1
     1.1 Speed Up/Slow Down 2
     2. Fall + Bounce
     3. Acceleration by
          physical Formulas
     4. Speed Controll by
          Spline Functions
  III. Animation Paths
      with Spline Curves
     1. Spline Curves
     2. Closed Splines
     3. Animation Paths

    Stereo Animations
 0.   Basics  How to start? What we should know about animations.
1. Basics on Animations with POV-Ray
Animations, animated gifs, avi video, mpeg video - how to do and a first example.
2. From a Series of Animation Images in POV-Ray to a Video File
How to use Dave's Targa Animator (DTA) (free!) for converting a series of single images to an avi video file.
Useful for a base to create an mpeg file with other video programs.
 frames, fps, bitrate, loop, ani gif, mpeg 3. Terms and Basic Knowledge
About frames, file sizes, image sizes, bit rates and compressions of animation files.
 clock, frame_number, ... 4. Animation Commands for ini files and scene files in POV-Ray
Commands of the ini files and values usable for the designing and control of animations in scene files.

 I.   Cyclic Animations
 A very economic method for the animation of periodic and rhythmic motions.
1. Rotating Objects   We get specially short animations for animated gifs (web applications), if we use the symmetric axes of objects.
1.2. Planets in Orbit
Cyclic Animation with Sun, Earth and Moon.
1.3. Clock Animation
Cyclic animation of the hands of a clock face.
2. Rotating Camera
The animated camera - we can animate camera location as well as the look_at point or angle of view!
2.1. Straight Moving Camera.
Cyclic animations with a straight moving camera fly with continuous speed.
3. The Western Wheel Problem   About the wheels rotating in the opposite direction - a problem of animations with rotating spoke wheels, gears or rotating propellers.
3.1 Rolling Wheels   How to roll a spoke wheel on a ground - without slipping or spinning.
4. Gears
Cyclic animation
4.1 Roller Chains for bikes, track chains for tanks and caterpillars, V-belts, conveyor belts and other engines
Cyclic animation
4.2 Bike Chains for motorcycles and bicycles with to alternating types of chain links.
Cyclic animation
5.0 Swinging Pendulum
Cyclic animation (uses the sine function).
5.1 Newton's Cradle, Newton's Pendulum
Cyclic animation (uses the sine function).
5.2 Rock the Rocker!
Cyclic animation of a rocking chair rolling oscillating in sine rhythm (uses the sine function).
6. Swinging Spiral Pendulum
Cyclic animation (uses the sine function)
7.0. Coupling Rods - Connecting the driving wheels together.
Cyclic animation (uses the sine and cosine function)
7.1 Connecting Rods
Cyclic animation (uses the sine and cosine function)
8. Psychedelic - Op-Art
Cyclic animation with animated textures.
9. Counters with Numbers and with 7 segment display.
Cyclic animation with Numbers.
10. Folding a Cube.
Cyclic animation on how to fold a cube out of 6 squares.

 II.   Non-Linear Movements
 How to simulate non-linear motions like acceleration and deceleration.
 1.0 Speed Up and Slow Down - with Useful Functions
Nonlinear movements in animations for realistic accelerations and retarding with basic functions.
Simple approximation by the cosine function.
 1.1 Speed Up and Slow Down - with Useful Functions
Nonlinear movements in animations for realistic accelerations and retarding with basic functions.
Approximation if the acceleration is starting and ending with zero.
 2. Fall and Bounce - with Useful Functions
Nonlinear movements in animations for realistic falling and bouncing with basic functions.
 3. Acceleration according to the Formulas of Physics
Nonlinear movements for realistic accelerations / deceleration by the laws of motion.
 4. Speed Controll by Spline Functions
Non-linear movements for simulations of realistic accelerations and decelerations by the spline function in POV-Ray.

 III.   Paths for Animations with Spline Curves
 An elegant method for "flybys" and "walkthroughs".
 1. The Concept of the Spline Curves
Basics on spline curves, time values and control points
 2. Closed Spline Curves
The simulation of cyclic repeating non-linear motions.
 3. Animations with Spline Curves
How to orientate objects along a spline curve.
The use of the Spline_Trans macro made by Rune S. Johansen.

 Stereo Images and Stereo Animations with POV-Ray

 A method for images and animations in stereo
 for the "cross-eye view".

© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2015
(since May-1999)
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