Introduction to the Scenery Description Langage of the POV-Ray Raytracer        
by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
           Cameras, Light Sources and Details in POV-Ray
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Home
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Camera + Light
  
in POV-Ray
  Content  -  INDEX
 
 Types of Light Sources:
   point light
   spotlight
   cylindrical spotlight,
   parallel light,
   area light, soft shadows
 
 Light Source Specials:
   Visible light sources
   Shadowless light sources
   projected_through
   Fade out
 
 Types of Cameras:
   Perspective camera
   Ultra_wide_angle
   Orthographic camera
   Cylindrical camera
   Spherical camera
   Fisheye camera
   Panoramic camera
   Omnimax camera
 
 Camera Specials:
   Aspect ratio
   Focal blur
   Perturbated camera

 Architectural Perspective
 
 Show and Hide:
   no_shadow
   no_reflection
   no_image
   no_body
 
                                             
Types of Cameras
Perspective camera
A classic perspective with three vanishing points,
strait lines remain straight line.
Maximum angle: < 180° !!!

camera{ // perspective //optional
        location < 0.00, 1.60, -3.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 1.60,  1.00>
        right x*image_width/image_height
        angle  50
      } 
A sheared perspective camera for avoiding converging vertical lines for a perspective with two vanishing points: Architectural Perspective.

View with perspective camera

Ultra_wide_angle camera
Nearly a real eyes perspective with angle ~ 45 degrees.
camera{ ultra_wide_angle angle 70
        location < 0.00, 1.60, -3.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 1.60,  1.00>
        right x*image_width/image_height
      } 
No maximal angle !!!
View with ultra_wide_angle camera
camera{ ultra_wide_angle angle 720
        location < 0.00, 1.60, -3.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 5.60,  1.00>
        right x*image_width/image_height
      } 
'No maximal angle !' = You can easily overdo it!
With 720° your are looking around yourself twice!
An ultra_wide_angle camera with 720°.

Orthographic camera
A projection without vanishing points, the parallels remain parallel, and the objects appear alway in the same size. Perfect for cross section plans.
camera{ orthographic angle  33
        location < 0.00, 3.60,-15.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 3.60,  1.00>
        right x*image_width/image_height
      } 
Frontal view with orthographic camera

Orthographic camera isometric
Perfect for isometric views.
camera{ orthographic angle 50
        location <1,1,-1>*15
        look_at  <0,0,0>
        right x*image_width/image_height
        translate <0,2.00,0>
      } 
Isometric view with orthographic camera

Camera type 'cylinder 1'
The verticals remain vertical.
camera{ cylinder 1 angle 180
        location < 0.00, 2.00, 0.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 2.00, 1.00>    
        right 1.33
        up  1
      } 
The types of cylinders:
cylinder 1: vertical cylinder, fixed viewpoint,
cylinder 2: horizontal cylinder, fixed viewpoint,
cylinder 3: vertical cylinder, viewpoint moves along the cylinder's axis,
cylinder 4: horizontal cylinder, viewpoint moves along the cylinder's axis.
view with cylinder 1 camera

Panoramic camera
A vue of 180° with a cylindrical equirectangular projection.
camera{ panoramic // angle 180 constant
        location < 0.00, 2.00, 0.00>
        look_at  < 0.00, 2.00, 1.00>
     // look_at  < 0.00, 2.00,-1.00>
      } 
We need a quadratic image (aspect ratio 1:1).
Two vues of 180° make a panorama of 360° for a 'SkySphere', i.e. for the PTViewer.
2 x 180° = 360° with panoramic camera

Spherical camera
A spherical projection like a map of the world.
For a 360° panoramic view we need an aspect ratio of 2:1.

camera{ spherical
        angle 360  // horizontal
              180  // vertical(optional)
        location <  0.00, 2.00, 0.00>
        look_at  <  0.00, 2.00,1.00>
        right  x*image_width/image_height
      } 
spherical camera

Fisheye camera
camera{ fisheye
        angle 180 // horizontal
        location < 15.00,17.00,-15.00>
        look_at  <  0.00, 2.00,  1.00>
        right  x*image_width/image_height
      } 
....
fisheye camera

Omnimax camera
... .
camera{ omnimax
        location < 0.00,2, 0.00>
        look_at  <  0.00,2.00,1.00>
        right  x*image_width/image_height
      } 
A vue of 180° with the vertical a little bit reduced. Without any 'angle'!
Used for films for dome-like Omnimax theaters.
omnimax camera

Index | Lights | Light Specials | Cameras | Camera Specials | Architectural Perspective | Show+Hide

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© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2013
email email: Friedrich.Lohmueller_at_t-online.de
http://www.f-lohmueller.de