Introduction to the Scenery Description Langage of the POV-Ray Raytracer        
by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
           Cameras, Light Sources and Details in POV-Ray
Italiano Italiano
Français français
Deutsch Deutsch

Home
- POV-Ray Tutorials
 
  
Camera + Light
  
in POV-Ray
  Content  -  INDEX
 
 Types of Light Sources:
   point light
   spotlight
   cylindrical spotlight,
   parallel light,
   area light, soft shadows
 
 Light Source Specials:
   Visible light sources
   Shadowless light sources
   projected_through
   Fade out
 
 Types of Cameras:
   Perspective camera
   Ultra_wide_angle
   Orthographic camera
   Cylindrical camera
   Spherical camera
   Fisheye camera
   Panoramic camera
   Omnimax camera
 
 Camera Specials:
   Aspect ratio
   Focal blur
   Perturbated camera

 Architectural Perspective
 
 Show and Hide:
   no_shadow
   no_reflection
   no_image
   no_body
 
                                             
Types of Light Sources:

Attention: It's possible to install nearly an infinite number of light sources in a scene, but we should keep under control ourselves specially in big sceneries! Why? The rendering time is nearly proportional to the number of light sources and fun with POV-Ray is antiproportional to the time necessary for renderings!

Point Light:   (far away like the sun)
light_source{ <2000,2000,  0> color White}
   // Position <x,y,z>, color of the light
It shines to all sides. From far away the rays seem to be parallel like the sun rays. The horizon is also well-lit.

A simple point light from far away

Point Light:   (near by like a lamp)
light_source{ <1.4, 1, 0>  color rgb<1,1,1>
              // fade_distance 0.75
            } 
It shines to all sides like a naked bulb. From near by the objects this light makes big conical shadows. Horizon appears darker than with a distant light.
Adding some fade_distance for more realistic fading out of the light meight be a good idea! (see: 'Fade out')

A simple point light from near by

Conical spotlight: - a light cone with soft fallout.
light_source{ <0,0,0> color rgb <1,1,1>   
              spotlight
              point_at<1,0,0>
              radius 20  // hotspot
              tightness 100
              falloff 60
              translate< 1.3, 3, 0>
            }
radius : hotspot, fully lighten center, degrees
tightness : falloff (~1 to 100), lower=softer, higher=sharper.
falloff : outer light circle, degrees

A spotlight with light cone and soft fallout

Cylindrical spotlight:
A parallel light beam with hard or soft fallout ('laser beam').
light_source{ <0,0,0> color rgb <1,1,1>
              cylinder
              point_at<0, 0, 0>
              radius 20
              tightness 100
              falloff 40
              translate< 1.3, 3, 0 >
            } 
radius : hotspot, fully lighten center, degrees
tightness : falloff (~1 to 100), lower=softer, higher=sharper.
falloff : outer light circle, degrees

A cylindrical spotlight with soft fallout

Parallel light:
A light with parallel rays like the sunlight.
light_source{ <2,1,0> color rgb <1,1,1>
              parallel
              point_at<1, 0, 0> 
            } 
The keyword 'parallel' can be used with all types of light sources. Note: With point lights 'point_at' must be placed after 'parallel'.

A light with parallel rays

Area light:
An area_light creates soft shadows like from extended light sources.
light_source{ <0,0,0>
              color rgb<1,1,1>
              area_light
              <5, 0, 0> <0, 0, 5>
              4,4 // numbers in directions
              adaptive 0  // 0,1,2,3...
              jitter // random softening
              translate<10, 10,  0>
             }//---- end of area_light
The lights spread out across axis_1=<5,0,0> and axis_2= <0,0,5>,
with 4 x 4 = 16 lights.
WARNING: This special light can significantly increase rendering times! (proportional to number of lights!)


An area_light with soft shadows
An area_light <5, 0, 0> <0, 0, 5>, 4x4

Area light for a fluorescent tube:
An area_light creates soft shadows like from linear light source.
light_source{ <0,0,0>
              color rgb<1,1,1>
              area_light
              <0.03, 0, 0> <1.47, 0, 0>
              1,10 // numbers in directions
              adaptive 0  // 0,1,2,3...
              jitter // random softening
              looks_like{
                          object{ Tube }
                        }
              translate<0, 1.50,  0>
             }//---- end of area_light
The lights spread out across x-axis <0.03, 0, 0> <1.47, 0, 0>, one array dimensions is set to 1.

Download the scene file for POV-Ray 'light_area_tube.pov'.
This scene file needs the include file 'chair_s00.inc'
from here: Ready made POV-Ray Objects - Furnitur

An area_light for a light tube.
An area_light <0.03, 0, 0> <1.47, 0, 0>, 1x10

Index | Lights | Light Specials | Cameras | Camera Specials | Architectural Perspective | Show+Hide

top

© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2010
email email: Friedrich.Lohmueller_at_t-online.de
http://www.f-lohmueller.de