###### Introduction to the Scenery Description Langage of the POV-Ray Raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller           Cameras, Light Sources and Details in POV-Ray
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Camera + Light

in POV-Ray
Content  -  INDEX

Types of Light Sources:
point light
spotlight
cylindrical spotlight,
parallel light,

Light Source Specials:
Visible light sources
projected_through

Types of Cameras:
Perspective camera
Ultra_wide_angle
Orthographic camera
Cylindrical camera
Spherical camera
Fisheye camera
Panoramic camera
Omnimax camera

Camera Specials:
Aspect ratio
Focal blur
Perturbated camera

Architectural Perspective

Show and Hide:
no_reflection
no_image
no_body

Camera Specials:
Aspect ratio
( aspect ratio = image_width / image_height )
The POV-Ray camera with a perspective camera uses the following aspect ratio:

 ```camera{ location <0,1,-3> look_at <0,1,0> up <0,1,0> right <1.33,0,0> } ```
The vectors up and right are determing an aspect ratio. Here (by default) we have an aspect ratio of 4:3 (= 1.33/1).
default aspect ratio 4:3 with image 4:3
The Aspect ratio Problem:
If we change the image size to a quadatic image or an image in 16:9, we see here:

Why this distortions?

With 1:1 we should use
right <1,0,0>
and with 16:9 we should use
right <16/9,0,0> !!!
Default aspect ratio 4:3
with an image 1:1

Default aspect ratio 4:3
with an image 16:9

Solution of the aspect ratio problem:
There are two preset variables in POV-Ray for the actually
used image dimensions called
image_width and image_height:

 ```camera{ location <0,1,-3> look_at <0,1,0> right x*image_width/image_height } // no right vector! ```
(x = <1,0,0>)
Now with this automatic aspect ratio, we'll get this:

No distortions anymore!
Automatic aspect ratio
with an image 1:1

Automatic aspect ratio
with an image 16:9

Focal blur
Simulating the 'depth of field' of a real photographic camera.
 ```camera{ angle 40 location < 0.00,2.00,-3.00> look_at < 0.00,2.00, 1.00> right x*image_width/image_height       // focal blur settings: focal_point <0.20,1.5,-5.25> aperture 0.7 // 0.05 ~ 1.5 blur_samples 100 // 4 ~ 100 confidence 0.9 // 0 ~ 1 variance 1/128 // 1/64 ~ 1/1024 ~ } ```
focal_point <0.20,1.5,-5.25> // This point is in focus 'sharp'
(I used a little red sphere to find the correct point!)
aperture 0.7 // 0.05 ~ 1.5; // more = more blurring
blur_samples 100 // 4 ~ 100, more = higher quality; fewer = faster
confidence 0.9 // how close to the correct color, 0 ~ 1, default 0.9
variance 1/128 //(default) smallest displayable color difference
focal blur off focal blur on

Perturbated camera
Using normal statement for camera.
 ```camera{ angle 40 location < 0.00,2.00,-3.00> look_at < 0.00,2.00, 1.00> right x*image_width/image_height       normal{ bumps 0.15 scale 0.4 translate<-0.2,0,0>} } ```
....

 ```camera{ angle 40 location < 0.00,2.00,-3.00> look_at < 0.00,2.00, 1.00> right x*image_width/image_height       normal{ cells 0.15 turbulence 0.2 scale 0.3 translate<-0.0,0,0>} } ```
perturbated by normal bumps
perturbated by normal cells

 Index | Lights | Light Specials | Cameras | Camera Specials | Architectural Perspective | Show+Hide
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