Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracer by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
Design of the Interior of transparent Shapes in POV-Ray
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- POV-Ray Tutorial

  Content Overview
  material, interior, media

  - Syntax material
      texture + interior
  - Window Glass
      + max_trace_level
  - Fog, Mist or Haze
  - Syntax Media
  - Media+Density Maps
  Atmospheric Media
    with/without density map
  - Beames in the Fog
  Object Media
  Emitting Media
  - Light Sword
  - Candle Flames
  Scattering Media
  - Light through Window
  - Steam, Smoke, Clouds
  Absorbing Media
  - Dust Devils
  Special Problems with Media
  - Scaling of Media
  - Overlapping Media

Syntax of "material"

The Syntax for "material","texture" and "interior" by a basic sample:

sphere{ <0,0,0>, 1
          texture { pigment{ color rgbt<1,1,1,0.5>}
                    normal { bumps 0.5 scale 0.025 }
                    finish { phong 1.0 }
                  } // end of texture
          interior{ ior 1.5
                    caustics 0.25
                  } // end of interior
          } // end of material
      } // end of sphere

material{...}" is a container for the following properties:
texture {...}" is a container for the properties consistance of surface
                        (Coloring, roughness, brightness, brilliance; transparency) and
interior {...}" is a container for the properties of the inside of a shape
                        (Index of refraction = ior, caustics, light absorption, dispersion) .

Hereby we have to consider "texture{...}" also as a container of the properties "pigment{...}" (Coloring) and "normal{...}" (simulierted surface deformation) and "finish{...}" (Brilliance and transparency property).
All these properties (pigment, normal, finish and interior) can also be used without the according parent container material{...} resp. texture{...}.
These containers "texture{...}" resp. "material{...}" turn out very useful, if we want to transform a material relative to a shape or if we want to declare shortcuts by variables for a material or a texture by "#declare".

From right to left:             without transparency,
                                with transparency, without ior,
              with ior (refraction), without caustics,
with ior + caustics.
  Demonstration of the refraction with ior + castics

Interior default values:
ior                : 1.0
caustics           : 0.0 // This > 0 simulates caustics - it's faked because it does not vary with distance and
                         // it's limited on parts that are shaded by the transparent object!
                         // 0.25, ~ 1  - 2
dispersion         : 1.0 // this simulates dispersion caused refraction
dispersion_samples : 7
fade_distance      : 0.0 (0=off) = distance with half intensity -
                         = attenuation of light intensity with the distance
fade_power         : 0.0 (0=off)  (realistic: 1~2,
                                  >=1000 ->realistic exponential attenuation function will be used!
fade_color         : <0,0,>

© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2009