###### Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller     CSG - Constructive Solid Geometry -
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- POV-Ray Tutorial

- CSG Constructive
Solid
Geometry
- union + merge
- difference
> intersection
+ invers
- clipped_by
- coincident surfaces
- textures in CSG

##### Boolean Algebra with Solids - part IV

intersection{...}
inverse

The statement "intersection{...}"
With two or more shapes it results in a shape which has an area that consists of the area common to all these shapes, the area where the objects are overlapping:

Sample "intersection":
 ```intersection{ box {<-0.5,-0.5,-0.5>,< 0.5,0.5,0.5> texture{ pigment{color rgb<1,0.65,0>} finish {phong 0.5}} } sphere{<0,0,0>,0.66 texture{ pigment{color rgb<1,0,0>} finish {phong 0.5}} } rotate<0,-30,0> translate<0,0.5,0> } // end of intersection ------------```

The complement - "inverse"
With this statement it is possible to turn a shape's inside out.
Especially true is: .
This is very useful in "differece" and "intersection"- it makes often things easier to describe in POV as the following sample shows:

 Instead of: write shorter: ```difference{ intersection {object{A} object{B} } object{C} }``` ```intersection {object{A} object{B} object{C inverse} }```

Sample "inverse":
 ```intersection{ box{<-0.5,-0.5,-0.5>,<0.5,0.5,0.5> texture{/*see above*/} } sphere{<0,0,0>,0.66 texture{/*see above*/} } cylinder{<0,0,-1>,<0,0,1>,0.3 inverse texture{pigment{color YellowGreen} finish {phong 0.5}}} cylinder{<0,-1,0>,<0,1,0>,0.3 inverse texture{pigment{color YellowGreen} finish {phong 0.5}}} cylinder{<-1,0,0>,<1,0,0>,0.3 inverse texture{pigment{color YellowGreen} finish {phong 0.5}}} rotate<0,-30,0> translate<0,0.5,0>}```

 CSG | union + merge | difference | intersection + inverse | clipped_by | coincident surfaces | textures
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 © Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2012 www.f-lohmueller.de