###### Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller
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- POV-Ray Tutorial

- Realistic Skies
- A Realistic Sky
- Partly Cloudy Sky
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- Massiv media clouds
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- Starry Skies
> Skydomes + skymaps
- Skyboxes + cubemaps
- HDRI environment

## How to create Realistic Skies with POV-Ray

Overview | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7.0 | 7.1 | 8 | 9 | 10

### Spherical Environment MappingA Skydome with 360° images of clouds:

##### A skydome is a big hemisphere or a sphere (if we want to simulate space) with an 360° image of a sky ("skymap") mapped on the inside of this sphere or hemisphere. This can be realizised in POV-Ray with image_map and sky_sphere. For using a 360° panoramic photo or image as a skymap in a skydome (with POV-Ray 3.6/3.7) we need to correct the gamma of the image/photo with the following macro.

 ```// Macro for the adjustment of images // for image_map with assumed_gamma = 1.0 ; #macro Correct_Pigment_Gamma(Orig_Pig, New_G) #local Correct_Pig_fn = function{ pigment {Orig_Pig} } pigment{ average pigment_map{ [function{ pow(Correct_Pig_fn(x,y,z).x, New_G)} color_map{[0 rgb 0][1 rgb<3,0,0>]}] [function{ pow(Correct_Pig_fn(x,y,z).y, New_G)} color_map{[0 rgb 0][1 rgb<0,3,0>]}] [function{ pow(Correct_Pig_fn(x,y,z).z, New_G)} color_map{[0 rgb 0][1 rgb<0,0,3>]}] }} #end // // "image_map" gamma corrected: // Correct_Pigment_Gamma( // pigment{ image_map{ jpeg "colors.jpg"}} // , Correct_Gamma) //------------------------------------------------ sky_sphere{ Correct_Pigment_Gamma( // gamma correction pigment{ image_map{ jpeg "sky_map_p_04_5200x1300.jpg" map_type 2 // cylindrical interpolate 2 // bilinear once // } // end of image_map scale<1,1.02,1> rotate<0,0.00,0> } // end of pigment , 2.2) //, New_Gamma } // end of sky_sphere --------------------```
##### A 360° panorama image for a skymap mapped on the sky_sphere in POV-Ray.Download of this skymap in 5200x1300 pixel (1.1 MB) here: sky_map_p_04_5200x1300.jpg

Overview | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7.0 | 7.1 | 8 | 9 | 10

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